Concepts

October 4, 2010

Former City Names: Tokyo (Edo) – Toronto (York) – Mumbai (Bombay) – Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon) – Queenstown (Cobh) – Jakarta (Batavia)

October 3, 2010

Graves’ disease: Autoimmune disease which affects the thyroid, causing it to increase in size and become overactive.

October 2, 2010

US defense spending of $465 billion in 2004 was more than 3 times the combined estimate by Russia, China, North Korea, Iran, and Syria.

October 1, 2010

Laissez-faire: Developed by 18th century French economists known as the Physiocrats, who were led by Francis Quesnay.

September 30, 2010

At a height of more than 16 miles, Mars massive volcano, Olympus Mons, is the highest point in the Solar System.

September 29, 2010

Dr. Suess’ real name was Theodore Geisel, Mark Twain’s was Samuel Clemens and Emmanuel Radnitzky was the American artist May Ray.

September 28, 2010

Did you know that 94 percent of life on Earth is aquatic? That makes us land-dwellers a very small minority.

September 27, 2010

Auguste Comte: French social theorist and founder of sociology (a term he coined, meaning the scientific study of society).

September 26, 2010

Relativism: philosophical doctrine that holds no truths or values to be absolute; they more closely related to our cultural, personal, spiritual and historical perspective.

September 25, 2010

Operant conditioning: associated with American psychologist B.F. Skinner and involves voluntary responses based on perceived outcomes.

September 24, 2010

Elizabeth Cady Stanton: social reformer and founder of feminism. In 1848, her and Lucretia Mott organized the 1st women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York.

September 23, 2010

McCarthyism: politically motivated efforts to discredit opponents through the implication of guilt by association with individuals or organizations considered leftist or potentially subversive. The term was coined by Washington Post political cartoonist Herblock (Herbert Block) in the early 1950’s and correlated to the crusade of Wisconsin senator Joseph R. McCarthy.

September 22, 2010

Dada: artistic and literary movement before and after World War I that rejected traditional aesthetic forms and social values, while focusing on ironic nihilism. It was founded in Zurich in 1915 by a group of political exiles and consisted of  Jean Arp, Tristan Tzara, Max Ernst, May Ray and Marcel Duchamp — just to name a few.

September 21, 2010

Anthropic principle: controversial aspect of cosmology, stating that the universe must allow for the existence of intelligent life capable of observing it.

September 20, 2010

Common law: a system of law and jurisprudence based on precedent rather than written codes or statues. It embodies stare decisis (Latin, “to stand by settled decisions.”)

September 19, 2010

Manifest destiny – coined on the eve of the Mexican War in 1845, in which the US annexed Texas and California by journalist John O’Sullivan

September 16, 2010

obfuscate *verb* —  to confuse, bewilder or stupefy.

2. to make obscure or unclear: to obfuscate a problem with extraneous information.

3. to darken.

September 15, 2010
hubris *noun* — excessive pride or self-confidence/arrogance.

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